Cryptogran

Control of false codling moth
in citrus and avocados
Purpose:

Control of false codling moth larvae in citrus, avocadoes, table grapes, peppers, macadamias, ornamentals, peaches, plums, litchis, nectarines, pomegranates, persimmons.

Target pests:

False codling moth (Thaumatotibia leucotreta)

Description:

Formulated suspension of granulovirus

Dosage:

See label


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Brochure Label MSDS


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FAQS

Spray coverage must be absolutely thorough i.e. a full cover film spray must be applied. Either an oscillating tower mist blower or hand guns should be used to achieve this. After hatching, an FCM larva might only move a very short distance before penetrating into the fruit. It is therefore imperative to ensure that the possibility of the larva encountering virus during this short journey is maximized. In commercial use, better control of FCM was achieved in orchards where trees were sprayed absolutely thoroughly. Adequate spray coverage is therefore of cardinal importance.


Yes it will. However, it might not work as well as it would if sprayed in the evening, as registered. The virus is highly UV sensitive and is known to be more adversely affected when still in suspension i.e. when wet.


CRYPTOGRAN is not compatible with copper or copper based products.


Compatibility trails have been conducted in both the laboratory and the field, with the following mixes:
1. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses, pyriproxyfen and oil;
2. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses, mancozeb, benomyl and oil;
3. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses, abamectin and oil;
4. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses, methidathion and a wetter;
5. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses and bromopropylate;
6. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses and methomyl;
7. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses and pyraclostrobin;
8. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses and trifloxystrobin;
9. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses and azoxystrobin; and
10. CRYPTOGRAN, molasses, mancozeb and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride.

Common trade names of the above products mixed with CRYPTOGRAN, are: Nemesis, Dithane, Benlate, Agrimec, Ultracide, Acarol, Lannate, Cabrio, Flint, Ortiva and Sporekill. No incompatibility was noted with any of these mixes and the efficacy of CRYPTOGRAN was not significantly reduced in combination with any of these products.


Yes. Field trials have been conducted to test the use of CRYPTOGRAN in combination with releases of egg parasitoids (Trichogrammatoidea cryptophlebiae) and with mating disruption. Both combinations showed improved control of FCM.


Levels of UV irradiation are higher in the Western Cape than most other areas of the country, for most of the year. Commercial use of CRYPTOGRAN in the Western Cape appears to indicate that results from application during November and December are superior to results from later applications. This might be because sprays in November and December are applied before FCM pressure increases to levels which are more difficult to manage. In order to avoid the periods of highest UV irradiation, applications before December and after March are the most recommendable. These restrictions are not necessary outside of the Citrusdal and Clanwilliam magisterial districts. However similar restrictions should apply to the Northern Cape.


The possibility of FCM developing resistance to CRYPTOGRAN is very slim. There are a number of reasons for this:
1. The virus in CRYPTOGRAN is a naturally occurring indigenous pathogen. In surveys conducted throughout South Africa, the virus was found to occur in FCM larvae in 87% of orchards surveyed. The host and the pathogen have obviously co-existed and co-evolved over millennia.
2. The application of “high” concentrations of CRYPTOGRAN in orchards is simply an imitation of a common natural phenomenon, known as an epizootic. An epizootic is an epidemic in animals, including insects. Field monitoring of levels of FCM and virus indicate that natural epizootics do have a suppressing effect on FCM populations.

3. River Bioscience has 5 new virus isolates to put in place if FCM develops resistance.


Possibly. Where the virus is not exposed to UV irradiation or excessive heat, it can persist for many years, either on the tree or in the soil. However, because FCM is an internal feeder, its “window of opportunity” for ingesting the virus is very small. It is therefore imperative that the virus be widely available and well dispersed on the fruit, where the larvae hatch and feed. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to reapply CRYPTOGRAN each season.


This is not likely. Extensive suppression (i.e. for years) of surface feeding pests on small plant crops has been reported. However, because FCM feeds inside the plant and because there is little chance of significant “splash up” of virus onto the tree due to rainfall, reapplication of CRYPTOGRAN will probably be necessary season after season.


This is not likely. Once the spray has dried on the tree, the volatility and hence odour of the molasses will be greatly reduced and therefore not detectable over long distances. If thrips and fruit flies have food where they are, they are also unlikely to migrate away.


No. Insect viruses, particularly granuloviruses, are known to be very host specific. It is not known whether CRYPTOGRAN would be effective against other species of the same genus as FCM, e.g. the macadamia borer, Cryptophlebia bactrachopa, the litchi moth, C. Peltastica or even C. Ombrodelta, a pest of macadamias in Australia and Asia, and C. Illepida in Hawaii.


Currently CRYPTOGRAN is only registered on citrus and avocadoes. Registration is pending on other FCM vulnerable crops like grapes, pomegranates and peppers.






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